One Electron Theory Explained

What is one electron theory?

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What is one electron theory? One electron theory (OET) is an effort to relate the properties of atoms to fundamental constants of nature, and ultimately, the structure of matter in general. OET combines the structure of atoms (as understood through X-ray diffraction and other methods) with quantum mechanics and special relativity to explain the observed properties of matter on all scales, from subatomic particles up to planets and galaxies. In particular, it can be used to predict the energy levels of electrons in hydrogen, which makes it useful in many areas of physics and chemistry, such as quantum mechanics and atomic physics.

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One electron theory

The One Electron Theory

Nobel Prize in Physics, 1956. The one electron theory states that there exists only one electron for all of space and time. There are no multiple electrons as a result of it being passed around an atomic nucleus or transferred between atoms/molecules. He also concluded that although our universe appears as a continuum, it must be quantized on an atomic level (each electron existing in its own separate universe). At least three other Nobel Prizes were awarded to scientists using concepts derived from his work; they were Max Born (Physics, 1954), Werner Heisenberg (Physics, 1932) and Paul Dirac (Physics, 1933). One Electron Universe Theory requires strings to vibrate faster than 10^16 Hz.

Theory assumes that all the electrons and positrons that surround the nuclei of every atom in the Universe, or that exist, for example, as electricity, are in fact the only thing of the electron-positron type (an entity with a dualistic nature that we measure. like electrons and positrons) move back and forth in spacetime. The answer is most likely negative, but this does not mean that theory cannot teach us anything of value. As with many quantum theories, the idea that every electron is the same electron, known as the one-electron theory, is more of a thought experiment than a theory. 

What is One Electron Universe

What if there were only one electron in the universe? Would it behave the same way in all places, or would it somehow be different? Is every electron physically identical to every other electron, or are they distinct and different from each other? The answers to these questions may not seem too important now, but they go far in helping us understand how to tackle fundamental problems that our species has been asking since the beginning of time. In this article we will explore the possibility of an Electron Universe, and see whether or not it sheds light on questions about the nature of reality itself.

The origin of the one electron theory

The one electron theory was started by Bob Swanson, who is an American physicist and a scientist. He established that everything in this universe has only one electron. After his experiments and researches, he came to know that everything has only one electron. Before reading ahead it will be good to know what electrons are? Why they need so much importance? So before proceeding further let’s have a brief idea about them.

The modern version of the one electron theory

In 2017, a group of astrophysicists proposed a new version of electron universe. This modern version of one electron theory suggests that electrons are not distributed randomly throughout space, but rather they are bound together by quantum forces in structures that may be very similar to atoms. 

Evidence for the one electron theory

There has been lots of research on electrons throughout history. Much of what we know about them comes from experiments, which have determined their properties and behaviors to some extent. For example, over a century ago, there was an experiment done that involved using a magnet to cause iron filings (small pieces of iron) to move around in patterns on a piece of paper. The patterns seemed random at first, but then it was observed that similar shapes emerged each time. It was later discovered that these shapes were caused by magnetic fields created by oscillating electric charges.

Related : democritus model

Disadvantages of One-Electron-Theory

The model of a one electron universe might be less plausible than some other theories. Most physicists argue that if we don’t have any proof of a multiverse, then it’s not worth trying to prove its existence. One problem with accepting a one electron universe theory is that it would eliminate all of our ideas about what happened before Big Bang or even how our universe came into being in the first place. So far, no scientist has been able to experimentally verify or prove its existence and theoretical models like a two-electron universe could simply fill that void instead.

Related: What is Tipler Cylinder ?

How Does It Work?

The theory proposes that each electron in an atom has only one environment and interacts with light and gravitation only from itself. One-electron universe theory postulates that electron interacts with all of its own light, not just a part of it, because it cannot distinguish between different parts of its own light. Since each electron interacts with all of its own light, then one-electron universe implies everything about our universe should be quantized or discrete (as opposed to continuous). Therefore, according to one-electron universe theory, there would be no such thing as half-integer spin (1/2 +), integer spin (0 +) etc., but rather a whole number of spins called integers.

If we add an energy quantum to the electron field, it will behave as a particle, that is, an electron. The same electron moves back and forth in time and interacts with itself countless times. The theory states that every electron in the universe is actually a particle that constantly moves back and forth in time. In other words, the theory assumes that all the electrons and positrons around each nucleus in the universe, or in the form of electricity, are actually just an electron-positron type thing (with the duality we measure, such as electrons and positrons). Electronic) move back and forth in time and space.    

One of the main reasons this thought experiment was proposed by Wheeler is because all electrons look the same. They all have exactly the same quantum numbers as an electric charge.


So, strictly speaking, according to this theory, not all electrons, and this is where this theory is revealed (just kidding, you know). If there is only one electron, then there must be an equal number of electrons and positrons in the universe (because every time an electron moves forward in time, it must move backward in time). When the cosmic ray moves down (back to the past), it is a positron, when it moves up, it is an electron. It interacts with itself countless times and generates countless electrons.


When John Wheeler pointed out that the positron is the same as the electron that moves backward in time, he came up with the idea that there can only be one electron. As a result, using a few simple equations, Wheeler can convert an electron moving forward in time to moving backward. The only change observed is the particle charge, which changes from negative to positive.


Feynman later proposed this interpretation of positrons in his 1949 thesis "Positron Theory", that is, electrons move backward in time. The suggestion that a positron can be explained as an electron temporarily moving backward in time captured Feynman’s imagination, and he found that this explanation can be done mathematically in a way that is fully in line with all the laws of logic and quantum theory.


He simply combined all the forward electrons and the backward positrons into one giant world line, imagining a particle that moves back and forth through the history of the universe to become every electron and positron that we have never seen. In 1940, physicist John Wheeler put forward a new theory that could explain why all electrons are identical. Wheeler came up with this idea because all electrons have the same charge and the same mass. Wheeler said that all electrons have the same charge and mass because they are all the same electron.


Ultimately, this means that the electrons cannot be distinguished. This means that if we conduct an experiment with a large number of electrons, it is impossible to tell which electron is at the end of the experiment. We also know that in every elementary particle there is an antiparticle with directly opposite quantum numbers. The Standard Model cannot explain why there is only matter in the universe and not equal amounts of antimatter.

The standard opinion is that the masses of particles and antiparticles are the same. If particles and antiparticles meet, they annihilate each other, resulting in, for example, photons. Perhaps this is why particle and antiparticle galaxies never collide.


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One electron theory


Combining such figures from corner to corner would give an electron's trail through the universe along a long, connected path, although that would be a great simplification. Wheeler suggested that instead of having many such lines, they could be part of a single line, like a huge tangled knot drawn by a single electron. Physicists were already working with the idea of ​​electrons and positrons, Wheeler simply proposed a way to connect all existing single numbers at the same time to explain why no one can tell them apart.


This would mean that not only are we all made of the same kind of things, but in fact each of us is made of one proton, neutron and electron. Such an experiment is impossible for a single antiparticle, such as a positron.


Wheeler is almost certain that his thought experiment is not a reflection of actual quantum reality, but he pointed out that the idea that the number of positrons is not equal to the number of electrons only applies to our observable universe. The theory and these figures show that an existing electron has passed through the universe 1080 times, each time it takes 460 years and 70 years. Whenever an electron has to go back in time, we can double these numbers, which is equivalent to an electron in the theory of single electrons, which has a history of 10105 years. So, if the universe of electrons is correct, this single particle has passed through the universe 1080 times, and each trip lasts 460 years and 70 years, you can double this number as reverse positrons on all return trips.


An electron, made up of only electrons, weaves into everything from your hat to your head and all other people, uniting us into one great, incredible masterpiece. This is the story of that bizarre thought experiment and John Archibald Wheeler, the genius and little-known physicist who invented it. But Richard Feynman did not take the electron universe as seriously as the idea that positrons are time reversed electrons.

 Quite surprisingly, studying something as small as an electron can tell us a lot about the universe. The electron is widely known as one of the main components of atoms that make up the world around us. This gives us a way to define the properties of an electron in such a way that they mimic the way we describe shapes in the classical world.


Since light is nothing more than a combination of vibrating electric and magnetic fields, it can be useful to determine the quantum properties of electrons that carry information about how they respond to applied electric and magnetic fields. The basis of the correspondence between the quantum state (wave function) of the universe and our experience is the description of objects made of elementary particles by physicists within the framework of standard quantum theory. Since quantum chromodynamics is a theory about colored elementary particles, and since color is related to quarks, and quarks are related to hadrons, which are strongly interacting particles, we can say that the theory describes this interaction.




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